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Engage your students with the collections of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, to illustrate themes and concepts in any discipline.

Producers and Consumers after the Industrial Revolution

This slide show is meant to give first graders an introductory overview of the American Industrial Revolution and how it impacted producers and consumers.

The three aspects of Industrial Revolution advances looked at here are:

1. Manufacturing - The development of factory systems allowed for the division of labor. Wage laborers could work on assembly lines without the need of the specialized skills of a master craftsman. Mechanized tools allowed for faster manufacturing. All of these efficient measures allowed production on a larger scale at a lower cost to producers. This mean a lower cost for consumers as well.

2. Technology - Innovations in photography allowed for means of portraiture other than painting. Photographs were more accurate, took less time and were less expensive to consumers.

3. Transportation - Steamboats and railroads increased speed at which goods could be distributed and decreased travel time. This opened up a wider range of products to consumers as well as an increased market for producers.

Each plays a part in the transformation of industry and how producers could manufacture and distribute goods as well as how consumers had more affordable choices with mass production and advances in technology.

Producers and Consumers After the Industrial Revolution
by Kristen McEnaney

This online gallery allows you and your first grade students to explore the concepts of economics.

This slide show is meant to give first graders an introduction to changing economics in America by linking historical facts with portraits, historical paintings, and artifacts.
These portraits and other artifacts allow young students to establish a visual link with the subject matter they are learning.

COMMON CORE FIRST GRADE STANDARDS ADDRESSED:

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.1.1 Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.1.1 Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.1.1a Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.1.1b Build on others’ talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.1.1c Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.1.2 Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

MASSACHUSETTS STATE FIRST GRADE FRAMEWORKS ADDRESSED:

ECONOMICS

9. Give examples of products (goods) that people buy and use. (E)
10.Give examples of services that people do for each other. (E)
11. Give examples of the choices people have to make about the goods and services they buy (e.g. a new coat, a tie, or a pair of shoes) and why they have to make choices (e.g., because they have a limited amount of money). (E)

ADDITIONAL LEARNING GOALS

Students will also learn:
-What it means to be a producer and a consumer.
-Identify 3 ways the American Industrial Revolution changed economics for producers and consumers.
-How to distinguish between fact and fiction
-Share their thinking with the group or a partner in the suggested discussions and support their thinking with information from the image or factual knowledge from their schema.

USING THIS RESOURCE
The content material in this online gallery is divided into three sections each pertaining to one aspect of changing economics with the Industrial Revolution with an introductory lesson to the historical period.

Preparing for the Lessons:
Slides should be shown on a projector screen. The students should all be sitting so that they can see the screen. They should also have a partner to “turn and talk” with for the discussion questions who is sitting in close proximity. If students have a “Quick Write” notebook or the like, you can have them write a short response to one of the discussion questions (one of your choosing or theirs) to jot down AFTER the discussions have been completed.

Lesson 1: Introduction

The first slide shows a typical image of how the Industrial Revolution changed the landscape of cities in the United States in the 19th century. New forms of manufacturing and transportation used new fuel sources to make production and transportation faster and more efficient. But these advances also came at a cost to the environment and working conditions. This painting by Ernest Lawson shows dramatic changes to city landscapes; we see smoke pouring into the sky and the horizon line is high, showing little of the sky beyond.

Review with students the slide notes which introduce the concept of a revolution and what it means to be an industrial revolution.
Help students try to put this revolution in context in time, 19th century (long ago).
Help them link this concept to other “revolutions” they may have some knowledge about (e.g., the American Revolution).

Present the discussion questions one at a time and give students time to turn and talk with a partner to generate their ideas and rehearse their verbal responses. After a few minutes, have students return attention to the slide and ask kids to share out from their partner talks with the whole group. Be sure to ask each child who shares to explain the reason for their thinking to help them extend their ideas and develop their verbal expression.

Lesson 2: Producers and Consumers

Introduce (or review) concepts of producers and consumers with children. They may be able to make links to science curriculum if you have studied energy webs and food chains - producers (plants) create or produce food while consumers (animals) eat or consume the food.

When we speak of producers and consumers in economic terms, producers then become those who make goods for consumers (buyers) to purchase.

Show the slide of the portrait of Pat Lyon. Share the information presented in the slide notes. As you reach the discussion questions, have the students turn and talk as they did before and then share out with the whole group. The first two questions are to reinforce what students are learning about the roles of producers and consumers. The third question asks them to think about which category they fall into and why.

Lesson 3: Manufacturing Changes

Show the factory line photo using the same procedure of showing the slide, sharing information, turn and talk for discussion questions, and whole group share.

For the second discussion question, you may want to chart student responses in a Venn Diagram to compare manufacturing practices before and after the Industrial Revolution.

For the third discussion question, you may wish to have students write their answers in a quick writes book or on a sheet of paper before sharing their ideas with the larger group.

Show the slide comparing the two teapots using the same procedure: show the slide, share the slide note information, turn and talk for discussion questions, and whole group share.

Silver plating was a new manufacturing concept that allowed people who were not of the wealthy upper class to still afford some of the nicer things. Kids could link this concept to that of “brand labels” - how some products use more expensive materials (leather, silk, etc.) but other products achieve a similar look using less expensive materials so that more consumers can afford them.

The next slide shows a very fancy, handcrafted piece of furniture (child’s bed). Show the slide using the same procedure: show the slide, share the slide note information, turn and talk for discussion questions, and whole group share.

This bed has many embellishments that make it a unique, but also expensive, piece. Have children compare this bed to their own bed to think about the similarities and differences. Nowadays, most of the furniture we buy for our homes is mass produced which makes it more affordable for consumers.

Lesson 4: Technology Innovations

Show the slide comparing the two portraits using the same procedure: show the slide, share the slide note information, turn and talk for discussion questions, and whole group share. Here again, you may want to chart student responses to the first discussion question on a Venn Diagram. Encourage them to notice all the artistic elements used in first portrait that seem missing in the second (light/shadow, depth, anatomical accuracy in shapes and proportions, attention to texture detail in fabrics and hair).

Show the next slide of the young boy using the same procedure: show the slide, share the slide note information, turn and talk for discussion questions, and whole group share.

For the first discussion question, highlight the dramatic changes in efficiency brought about by this invention. Producers can do many more photographs than portraits in a given time and sell at a lower cost to more consumers.

The second question goes to the heart of the argument opposing the advances of the Industrial Revolution in its day - a nostalgia for a simpler time and valuing skilled craftsmanship over “one-fits-all” mass production.

Lesson 5: Transportation Advances

Show the slide showing a train mixed into the background of a lush landscape. Follow the same procedure: show the slide, share the slide note information, turn and talk for discussion questions, and whole group share.

Emphasize the importance of the advances of transportation - being able to sell to a wider market benefits both consumers and producers. You can liken this internet shopping that people do today: customers (consumers) can find things not available in their local stores and producers can make more money by selling to more people.

Show the next slide of the steamboat in the background of the tall ships in Boston Harbor. Follow the same procedure: show the slide, share the slide note information, turn and talk for discussion questions, and whole group share.

Have kids link these advances to those made later with automobiles, roads, fuel and aircraft. How have these inventions taken the Industrial Revolution transportation advances even further?

Lesson 6: Conclusion

In our modern world, we are accustomed to living with the technological advances that started with the Industrial Revolution and have continued into today.

This last slide shows a bit of a romantic view of people living in harmony with all that the Industrial Revolution brought with it. It took our vast country, then still in its westward expansion, and make it seem a smaller place where not only goods, but people could travel more quickly using trains and steamboats.

Culminating Assignment: Students will write a response to the opinion question:
What do you think was the best change brought about by the Industrial Revolution? Why? (see Common Core Standard W1.1 cited above).

Follow-up:

Most of the portraits, paintings and objects in this online gallery are on view at the MFA. I encourage you to visit the museum and walk through the new American Wing to explore more figures and artifacts from this era. I would suggest that this online gallery could be a part of a larger unit of study on Economics and producers and consumers as further outlined in the Massachusetts State Frameworks: 9. Give examples of products (goods) that people buy and use. (E) 10.Give examples of services that people do for each other. (E) 11. Give examples of the choices people have to make about the goods and services they buy (e.g. a new coat, a tie, or a pair of shoes) and why they have to make choices (e.g., because they have a limited amount of money). (E)